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He had assumed the leadership after Samson 's death. Subsequently, Hannah became pregnant and gave birth to Samuel. Hannah's exultant hymn of thanksgiving resembles in several points Mary's later Magnificat. After the child was weaned, she left him in Eli's care, [4] and from time to time she would come to visit her son. According to 1 Samuel , Hannah named Samuel to commemorate her prayer to God for a child. Samuel worked under Eli in the service of the shrine at Shiloh.

One night, Samuel heard a voice calling his name.

Elias Silva - Ao Vivo - Completo.

According to the first-century Jewish historian Josephus , Samuel was about 11 years old. Eli, however, sent Samuel back to sleep. After this happened three times, Eli realised that the voice was the Lord's, and instructed Samuel on how to answer:. Once Samuel responded, the Lord told him that the wickedness of the sons of Eli had resulted in their dynasty being condemned to destruction. Upon receiving the communication, Eli merely said that the Lord should do what seems right unto him.

This event established that Samuel was now "established as a prophet of the Lord" and "all Israel from Dan to Beersheba " became aware of his prophetic calling. During Samuel's youth at Shiloh , the Philistines inflicted a decisive defeat against the Israelites at Eben-Ezer , placed the land under Philistine control, and took the sanctuary's Ark for themselves. Upon hearing the news of the capture of the Ark of the Covenant, and the death of his sons, Eli collapsed and died.

When the Philistines had been in possession of the Ark for seven months and had been visited with calamities and misfortunes, they decided to return the Ark to the Israelites. According to Bruce C. Birch, Samuel was a key figure in keeping the Israelites' religious heritage and identity alive during Israel's defeat and occupation by the Philistines.

After 20 years of oppression, Samuel, who had gained national prominence as a prophet 1 Samuel , summoned the people to the hill of Mizpah , and led them against the Philistines.

Conflicting traditions about Samuel.

The Philistines, having marched to Mizpah to attack the newly amassed Israelite army, were soundly defeated and fled in terror. The retreating Philistines were slaughtered by the Israelites. The text then states that Samuel erected a large stone at the battle site as a memorial, and there ensued a long period of peace thereafter. Samuel initially appointed his two sons Joel and Abijah as his successors; however, just like Eli's sons, Samuel's proved unworthy. The Israelites rejected them.

Because of the external threat from other tribes, such as the Philistines, the tribal leaders decided that there was a need for a more unified, central government, [17] and demanded Samuel appoint a king so that they could be like other nations. Samuel interpreted this as a personal rejection, and at first was reluctant to oblige, until reassured by a divine revelation. When Saul and his servant were searching for his father 's lost asses, the servant suggested consulting the nearby Samuel. Samuel recognized Saul as the future king. Just before his retirement, Samuel gathered the people to an assembly at Gilgal , and delivered a farewell speech [18] or coronation speech [19] in which he emphasised how prophets and judges were more important than kings, that kings should be held to account, and that the people should not fall into idol worship, or worship of Asherah or of Baal.

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Samuel promised that God would subject the people to foreign invaders should they disobey. This is seen by some as a deuteronomic redaction ; [20] since archaeological finds indicate that Asherah was still worshipped in Israelite households well into the sixth century. However, 1 Kings , 33 and 2 Kings note that the Israelites fell into Asherah worship later on. When Saul was preparing to fight the Philistines, Samuel denounced him for proceeding with the pre-battle sacrifice without waiting for the overdue Samuel to arrive.


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He prophesied that Saul's rule would see no dynastic succession. Samuel directed Saul to "utterly destroy" the Amalekites in fulfilment of the commandment in Deuteronomy —19 :. During the campaign against the Amalekites, King Saul spared Agag , the king of the Amalekites, and the best of their livestock. Saul told Samuel that he had spared the choicest of the Amalekites' sheep and oxen, intending to sacrifice the livestock to the Lord.

This was in violation of the Lord's command, as pronounced by Samuel, to " Samuel confronted Saul for his disobedience and told him that God made him king, and God can unmake him king. Samuel then proceeded to execute Agag. Saul never saw Samuel alive again after this.

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Samuel then proceeded to Bethelehem and secretly anointed David as king. He would later provide sanctuary for David, when the jealous Saul first tried to have him killed. Samuel is described in the biblical narrative as being buried in Ramah. Some time after his death, Saul had the Witch of Endor conjure Samuel's ghost in order to predict the result of an up-coming battle. This passage is ascribed by textual scholars to the Republican Source.

Classical rabbinical sources say that Samuel was terrified by the ordeal, having expected to be appearing to face God's judgment , and had, therefore, brought Moses with him to the land of the living as a witness to his adherence to the mitzvot. Source-critical scholarship suggests that these two roles come from different sources, which later were spliced together to form the Book s of Samuel. The oldest is considered to be that marking Samuel as the local seer of Ramah, who willingly anointed Saul as king in secret, while the latter presents Samuel as a national figure, begrudgingly anointing Saul as king in front of a national assembly.

This later source is generally known as the Republican Source, since it denigrates the monarchy particularly the actions of Saul and favours religious figures, in contrast to the other main source—the Monarchial Source—which treats it favourably. Theoretically if we had the Monarchial Source we would see Saul appointed king by public acclamation, due to his military victories, and not by cleromancy involving Samuel. Another difference between the sources is that the Republican Source treats the ecstatic prophets as somewhat independent from Samuel 1 Samuel ff rather than having been led by him 1 Samuel ff.

The passage in which Samuel is described as having exercised the functions of a biblical judge, during an annual circuit from Ramah to Bethel to Gilgal the Gilgal between Ebal and Gerizim to Mizpah and back to Ramah, is foreshadowed by Deborah , who used to render judgments from a place beneath a palm between Ramah and Bethel. The Book s of Samuel variously describe Samuel as having carried out sacrifices at sanctuaries, and having constructed and sanctified altars. The books of Samuel and Kings offer numerous examples where this rule is not followed by kings and prophets, but some critical scholars look elsewhere seeking a harmonization of the issues.

In the Book of Chronicles , Samuel is described as a Levite, rectifying this situation; however critical scholarship widely sees the Book of Chronicles as an attempt to redact the Book s of Samuel and of Kings to conform to later religious sensibilities. Since many of the Biblical law codes themselves are thought to postdate the Book s of Samuel according to the Documentary Hypothesis , this would suggest Chronicles is making its claim based on religious motivations.

The Levitical genealogy of 1 Chronicles 4 is not historical, according to most modern scholarship. According to the documentary hypothesis of Biblical source criticism, which postulates that " Deuteronomistic historians " redacted the Former Prophets Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings , the Deuteronomists idealized Samuel as a figure larger than life, like Joshua. For example, Samuel's father Elkanah is described as having originated from Zuph , specifically Ramathaim-Zophim , which was part of the tribal lands of Ephraim , while 1 Chronicles states that he was a Levite.

In 1 Sam —17, a speech of Samuel that portrays him as the judge sent by God to save Israel may have been composed by the Deuteronomists. According to documentary scholarship, the Deuteronomistic historians preserved this view of Samuel while contributing him as "the first of prophets to articulate the failure of Israel to live up to its covenant with God.

According to the Book of Jeremiah [29] and one of the Psalms [30] , Samuel had a high devotion to God. Classical Rabbinical literature adds that he was more than an equal to Moses, God speaking directly to Samuel, rather than Samuel having to attend the tabernacle to hear God. Samuel is also treated by the Classical Rabbis as a much more sympathetic character than he appears at face value in the Bible; his annual circuit is explained as being due to his wish to spare people the task of having to journey to him; Samuel is said to have been very rich, taking his entire household with him on the circuit so that he didn't need to impose himself on anyone's hospitality; when Saul fell out of God's favour, Samuel is described as having grieved copiously and having prematurely aged.

His yahrzeit is observed on the 28th day of Iyar. For Christians , Samuel is considered to be a prophet, judge, and wise leader of Israel, and treated as an example of fulfilled commitments to God. On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar , as well as the Lutheran calendar, his feast day is August Herbert Lockyer and others have seen in Samuel's combined offices of prophet, priest, and ruler a foreshadowing of Christ.

The narrative of Samuel in Islam focuses specifically on his birth and the anointing of Talut. Other elements from his narrative are in accordance with the narratives of other Prophets of Israel , as exegesis recounts Samuel's preaching against idolatry. In the Islamic narrative, the Israelites after Moses wanted a king to rule over their country. Thus, God sent a prophet, Samuel, to anoint Talut as the first king for the Israelites.


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However, the Israelites mocked and reviled the newly appointed king, as he was not wealthy from birth. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the prophet recorded in the Biblical books of Samuel. For other persons named Samuel, see Samuel name. Classical rabbinical sources say that Samuel was terrified by the ordeal, having expected to be appearing to face God's judgment , and had, therefore, brought Moses with him to the land of the living as a witness to his adherence to the mitzvot. Source-critical scholarship suggests that these two roles come from different sources, which later were spliced together to form the Book s of Samuel.

The oldest is considered to be that marking Samuel as the local seer of Ramah, who willingly anointed Saul as king in secret, while the latter presents Samuel as a national figure, begrudgingly anointing Saul as king in front of a national assembly. This later source is generally known as the Republican Source, since it denigrates the monarchy particularly the actions of Saul and favours religious figures, in contrast to the other main source — the Monarchial Source — which treats it favourably.

Theoretically if we had the Monarchial Source we would see Saul appointed king by public acclamation, due to his military victories, and not by cleromancy involving Samuel. Another difference between the sources is that the Republican Source treats the ecstatic prophets as somewhat independent from Samuel 1 Samuel ff rather than having been led by him 1 Samuel ff. The passage in which Samuel is described as having exercised the functions of a biblical judge, during an annual circuit from Ramah to Bethel to Gilgal the Gilgal between Ebal and Gerizim to Mizpah and back to Ramah, is foreshadowed by Deborah , who used to render judgments from a place beneath a palm between Ramah and Bethel.

The Book s of Samuel variously describe Samuel as having carried out sacrifices at sanctuaries, and having constructed and sanctified altars.